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How did we get from no life on Earth, to the rich abundance we see today? The Physical Aspect of the Living Cell. In 2004, a team detected traces of PAHs in a nebula. NASA Specialized Center of Research and Training in Exobiology: This page was last edited on 4 January 2021, at 21:04. Glycine has been detected in meteorites before. The similarities between all present day organisms indicate the presence of a common ancestor from which all known species, living and extinct, have diverged through the process of evolution. The Phanerozoic Eon, literally the "period of well-displayed life," marks the appearance in the fossil record of abundant, shell-forming and/or trace-making organisms. Archibald Macallum noted the resemblance of body fluids such as blood and lymph to seawater;[330] however, the inorganic composition of all cells differ from that of modern seawater, which led Mulkidjanian and colleagues to reconstruct the "hatcheries" of the first cells combining geochemical analysis with phylogenomic scrutiny of the inorganic ion requirements of universal components of modern cells. [b] Carbon fixation via iron-sulfur chemistry is highly favourable, and occurs at neutral pH and 100C. Fox observed in the 1960s that the proteinoids that he had synthesized could form cell-like structures that have been named "proteinoid microspheres". [20][311] Metabolism may predate the origin of life, which may have evolved from the chemical conditions in the earliest oceans. Chiral molecules can be synthesized, but in the absence of a chiral source or a chiral catalyst, they are formed in a 50/50 mixture of both enantiomers (called a racemic mixture). [233] Research by the Miller group notes the formation of seven different amino acids and 11 types of nucleobases in ice when ammonia and cyanide were left in a freezer from 1972 to 1997. In biology , evolution is any change across successive generations in the heritable characteristics of biological populations. [269] The main advantages of encapsulation include the increased solubility of the contained cargo within the capsule and the storage of energy in the form of an electrochemical gradient. For more detailed and comprehensive coverage, see, "How Many Species Are There on Earth and in the Ocean? [48], Multiple sources of energy were available for chemical reactions on the early Earth. No new notable research or hypothesis on the subject appeared until 1924, when Oparin reasoned that atmospheric oxygen prevents the synthesis of certain organic compounds that are necessary building blocks for life. [380] In evolutionary competition experiments, this led to the emergence of new systems which replicated more efficiently. The reaction was scrutinized and subsequently proposed to be autocatalytic by Breslow in 1959. The Precambrian (or Pre-Cambrian, sometimes abbreviated pЄ, or Cryptozoic) is the earliest part of Earth's history, set before the current Phanerozoic Eon. "Panspermia: A promising field of research". Episode 10: Two popular theories on how life was created on earth are… 1. In a generalization and thermal variation of the binding change mechanism of today's ATP synthase, the "first protein" would have bound substrates (peptides, phosphate, nucleosides, RNA 'monomers') and condensed them to a reaction product that remained bound until it was released after a temperature change by a thermal unfolding. [153] Classical notions of spontaneous generation held that certain "lower" or "vermin" animals are generated by decaying organic substances. The earliest physical evidence so far found consists of microfossils in the Nuvvuagittuq Greenstone Belt of Northern Quebec, in banded iron formation rocks at least 3.77 and possibly 4.28 Gyo. Today the energy source of all life can be linked to photosynthesis, and one speaks of primary production by sunlight. One of the greatest mysteries facing humans is how life originated on Earth. [63][64][65], As many as 123 definitions of life have been compiled.[66]. [12], Factors in mass extinctions include continental drift, changes in atmospheric and marine chemistry, volcanism and other aspects of mountain formation, changes in glaciation, changes in sea level, and impact events. 3.5 Gao hot spring deposits", "SIMS analyses of the oldest known assemblage of microfossils document their taxon-correlated carbon isotope compositions", "Oldest fossils ever found show life on Earth began before 3.5 billion years ago", "Earliest evidence of life on Earth found", "Canadian bacteria-like fossils called oldest evidence of life", "Researchers uncover 'direct evidence' of life on Earth 4 billion years ago", "Cavitation-Induced Synthesis of Biogenic Molecules on Primordial Earth", "Microscopic dissipative structuring and proliferation at the origin of life", "Vocabulary of Definitions of Life Suggests a Definition", "Making Sense of the Chemistry That Led to Life on Earth", "When Did Life Likely Emerge on Earth in an RNA‐First Process? These protons have been set across the membrane during respiration or photosynthesis. This timeline of the evolutionary history of life represents the current scientific theory outlining the major events during the development of life on planet Earth. ", Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, "Early life on land and the first terrestrial ecosystems", "Bacteriophage T4 genetic homologies with bacteria and eucaryotes", "Eukaryotic organisms in Proterozoic oceans", "First Land Plants and Fungi Changed Earth's Climate, Paving the Way for Explosive Evolution of Land Animals, New Gene Study Suggests", 10.1666/0094-8373(2000)026<0386:BPNGNS>2.0.CO;2, "Is This the First Fossil of an Embryo? [267] Furthermore, recent studies have found that the repeated actions of dehydration and rehydration trapped biomolecules like RNA inside the lipid protocells found within hot springs and providing the necessary preconditions for evolution by natural selection. originally appeared on Quora - the knowledge sharing network where compelling questions are answered by people with unique insights. [18] This was the first demonstration of evolutionary adaptation occurring in a molecular genetic system.[380]. [49] No one has yet synthesized a "protocell" using simple components with the necessary properties of life (the so-called "bottom-up-approach"). This provided direct experimental support for the second point of the "soup" theory, and it is around the remaining two points of the theory that much of the debate now centers. How did life begin on Earth? [364] Virus self-assembly within host cells has implications for the study of the origin of life,[365] as it lends further credence to the hypothesis that life could have started as self-assembling organic molecules. [136][137][138], Panspermia is the hypothesis that life exists throughout the universe, distributed by meteoroids, asteroids, comets[139] and planetoids. [36][37][38][39] However, a number of discoveries suggest that life may have appeared on Earth even earlier. [231] Orgel and colleagues have shown that freezing temperatures are advantageous for the synthesis of purines, due to the concentrating effect for key precursors such as hydrogen cyanide. [294][295], The research reported above by Martin in 2016 supports the thesis that life arose at hydrothermal vents,[296][297] that spontaneous chemistry in the Earth's crust driven by rock–water interactions at disequilibrium thermodynamically underpinned life's origin[298][299] and that the founding lineages of the archaea and bacteria were H2-dependent autotrophs that used CO2 as their terminal acceptor in energy metabolism. Because the soft parts of an organism are the first to decay and disappear These droplets would "grow" by fusion with other droplets, and "reproduce" through fission into daughter droplets, and so have a primitive metabolism in which factors that promote "cell integrity" survive, and those that do not become extinct. Ladyman, J.; Lambert, J.; Weisner, K.B. It is proposed that this then bifurcates between Dominion Ribosa (RNA life), and after the loss of ribozymes RNA viruses as Domain Viorea, and Dominion Terroa[clarification needed], which after creating a large cell within a lipid wall, creating DNA the 20 based amino acids and the triplet code, is established as the last universal common ancestor or LUCA, of earlier phylogenic trees. In 2011, Tadashi Sugawara from the University of Tokyo created a protocell in hot water. (1967) An Introduction to the Thermodynamics of Irreversible Processes, Wiley, New York. Read related article Filming for this video by Petr Stepanek. If life evolved deeper than this, it would have also been shielded from the early high levels of ultraviolet radiation from the T Tauri stage of the Sun's evolution. Both respiration by mitochondria and photosynthesis in chloroplasts make use of chemiosmosis to generate most of their ATP. David Ward of Montana State University described the formation of stromatolites in hot mineral water at the Yellowstone National Park. depict LUCA as anaerobic, CO2-fixing, H2-dependent with a Wood–Ljungdahl pathway, N2-fixing and thermophilic. David Kaplan explores the leading theories for the origin of life on our planet. The RNA World concept might offer the best chance for the resolution of this conundrum but so far cannot adequately account for the emergence of an efficient RNA replicase or the translation system. [111] Most of the collapsing mass collected in the center, forming the Sun, while the rest flattened into a protoplanetary disk out of which the planets, moons, asteroids, and other small Solar System bodies formed. Today life has conquered every square inch of Earth, but when the planet formed it was a dead rock. Bernal called this idea biopoiesis or biopoesis, the process of living matter evolving from self-replicating but non-living molecules,[156][174] and proposed that biopoiesis passes through a number of intermediate stages. This scientific mystery remains unsolved, but we may be close to solving it every day email addresses were disqulified from the list and couldn't be sent. The time periods between such devastating environmental events give time windows for the possible origin of life in the early environments. Its genetic code required nucleoside modifications and S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methylations. [24][188][189][190] Based on computer model studies, the complex organic molecules necessary for life may have formed on dust grains in the protoplanetary disk surrounding the Sun before the formation of the Earth. They were based upon an anaerobic metabolism fixing carbon dioxide and nitrogen. Instead life almost certainly originated in a series of One reason is that early life consisted of single-celled organisms. [258], The lipid world theory postulates that the first self-replicating object was lipid-like. Any successful theory of abiogenesis must explain the origins and interactions of these classes of molecules. [391][392][393], In October 2018, researchers at McMaster University announced the development of a new technology, called a Planet Simulator, to help study the origin of life on planet Earth and beyond. It has several advantages as a biotic precursor, including the ability to easily become concentrated through the evaporation of water. [226][227] Although HCN is poisonous, it only affects aerobic organisms (eukaryotes and aerobic bacteria), which did not yet exist. Schematically, life is a transducer. [103] In asymmetric autocatalysis, the catalyst is a chiral molecule, which means that a chiral molecule is catalyzing its own production. In particular, experiments by Butlerov (the formose reaction) showed that tetroses, pentoses, and hexoses are produced when formaldehyde is heated under basic conditions with divalent metal ions like calcium. This experiment demonstrated the possibility that autocatalysts could exhibit competition within a population of entities with heredity, which could be interpreted as a rudimentary form of natural selection.[252][253]. On the origin of self-replicating systems. About this time, Haldane suggested that the Earth's prebiotic oceans (quite different from their modern counterparts) would have formed a "hot dilute soup" in which organic compounds could have formed. [87] More recently, Peter Ward has proposed an alternative view which is rooted in abiotic RNA synthesis which becomes enclosed within a capsule and then creates RNA ribozyme replicates. The Earth, formed 4.5 Gya, was at first inhospitable to any living organisms. Photosynthesizing, porous edifices built of hydrothermally precipitated zinc sulfide as cradles of life on Earth", "Before Enzymes and Templates: Theory of Surface Metabolism", "On the origin of life in the zinc world. The struggle started and soon after earth’s formation, organisms start appearing. that life evolved in structured iron monosulphide precipitates in a seepage site hydrothermal mound at a redox, pH, and temperature gradient between sulphide-rich hydrothermal fluid and iron(II)-containing waters of the Hadean ocean floor. Perhaps life did not begin on Earth at all, but was brought here from elsewhere in space, a notion known as panspermia. [102] A small bias (enantiomeric excess) in the population can be amplified into a large one by asymmetric autocatalysis, such as in the Soai reaction. The concepts related to the Iron-Sulfur world can be considered as a scenario. Such radioactive beach sand might have provided sufficient energy to generate organic molecules, such as amino acids and sugars from acetonitrile in water. The only known environments that mimic the needed conditions on Earth are found in terrestrial hydrothermal pools fed by steam vents. John Parnell has suggested that such a process could provide part of the "crucible of life" in the early stages of any early wet rocky planet, so long as the planet is large enough to have generated a system of plate tectonics which brings radioactive minerals to the surface. Researchers have identified five major extinction events in earth's history since:[11], (Dates and percentages represent estimates. Hall", Winston Churchill's essay on Evolution (c.1939/1950s),, Evolutionarily significant biological phenomena, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from February 2017, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from June 2014, Articles lacking reliable references from June 2015, CS1 maint: DOI inactive as of December 2020, Articles lacking reliable references from January 2021, Short description is different from Wikidata, All Wikipedia articles written in American English, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2017, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from August 2018, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2020, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 1994, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. The results, . [394], "Origin of life" redirects here. The energy required to release formed strongly-bound ATP has its origin in protons that move across the membrane. First synthesized in 1963 from simple minerals and basic organics while exposed to sunlight, it is still reported to have some metabolic capabilities, the presence of semipermeable membrane, amino acids, phospholipids, carbohydrates and RNA-like molecules. [339] By the end of the Archean, with life-induced ozone dissipating UV-C light in the Earth's upper atmosphere, it would have become ever more improbable for a completely new life to emerge that did not rely on the complex metabolic pathways already existing since now the free energy in the photons arriving at Earth's surface would have been insufficient for direct breaking and remaking of covalent bonds. [132] At Strelley Pool, in the Pilbara region of Western Australia, compelling evidence of early life was found in pyrite-bearing sandstone in a fossilized beach, that showed rounded tubular cells that oxidized sulfur by photosynthesis in the absence of oxygen. [368][369] One of the difficulties for the study of the origins of viruses is their high rate of mutation; this is particularly the case in RNA retroviruses like HIV. Evolution is one explanation for life gradually developing on earth but that would be an explanation of all life… Creation is another…one is a religious teaching and the other is a scientific approach… The alternative hypothesis was biogenesis: that every living thing came from a pre-existing living thing (omne vivum ex ovo, Latin for "every living thing from an egg"). Four-limbed tetrapods gradually gain adaptations which will help them occupy a terrestrial life-habit. [57] Boltzmann thus realized that living systems, like all irreversible processes, were dependent on the dissipation of a generalized chemical potential for their existence. [114] The atmosphere at the time has been characterized as a "gigantic, productive outdoor chemical laboratory. [199], Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are known to be abundant in the universe,[196][197][198] including in the interstellar medium, in comets, and in meteorites, and are some of the most complex molecules so far found in space. Thermodynamics, self-organization, and information: Physics [328] The Zn-world theory specifies and differentiates further. [237], At the time of the Miller–Urey experiment, scientific consensus was that the early Earth had a reducing atmosphere with compounds relatively rich in hydrogen and poor in oxygen (e.g., CH4 and NH3 as opposed to CO2 and nitrogen dioxide (NO2)). Zotin, A.I. This system of replicating clays and their metabolic phenotype then evolved into the sulfide rich region of the hotspring acquiring the ability to fix nitrogen. It was gradually shown that, at least in the case of all the higher and readily visible organisms, the previous sentiment regarding spontaneous generation was false. A new finding raises an old question: Where and when did life begin? [154] A related theory was heterogenesis: that some forms of life could arise from different forms (e.g. A new origin-of-life theory based on self-replicating beta-sheet structures has been put forward by Maury in 2009. [18][19], The classic 1952 Miller–Urey experiment and similar research demonstrated that most amino acids, the chemical constituents of the proteins used in all living organisms, can be synthesized from inorganic compounds under conditions intended to replicate those of the early Earth. Gold's theory is that the flow of such food is due to out-gassing of primordial methane from the Earth's mantle; more conventional explanations of the food supply of deep microbes (away from sedimentary carbon compounds) is that the organisms subsist on hydrogen released by an interaction between water and (reduced) iron compounds in rocks. The proton motive force can be described as the measure of the potential energy stored as a combination of proton and voltage gradients across a membrane (differences in proton concentration and electrical potential). The RNA world hypothesis describes an early Earth with self-replicating and catalytic RNA but no DNA or proteins. One of the steps in this sequence allows the isolation of enantiopure ribose aminooxazoline if the enantiomeric excess of glyceraldehyde is 60% or greater. Pyrimidine, like PAHs, the most carbon-rich chemical found in the Universe, may have been formed in red giant stars or in interstellar dust and gas clouds. [24][25][26][27], Earth remains the only place in the universe known to harbour life,[28][29] and fossil evidence from the Earth informs most studies of abiogenesis. More abstract and theoretical arguments for the plausibility of the emergence of metabolism without the presence of genes include a mathematical model introduced by Freeman Dyson in the early 1980s and Stuart Kauffman's notion of collectively autocatalytic sets, discussed later that decade. [270] It is the oldest known computational abstract of a protocell. Those researchers think that "the prolonged pressure of genome and particle size reduction eventually reduced virocells into modern viruses (identified by the complete loss of cellular makeup), meanwhile other coexisting cellular lineages diversified into modern cells. The term biogenesis is usually credited to either Henry Bastian or to Thomas Huxley. [338] Nucleic acids may thus have acted as acceptor molecules to the UV-C photon excited antenna pigment donor molecules by providing an ultrafast channel for dissipation. In March 2020, astronomer Tomonori Totani presented a statistical approach for explaining how an initial active RNA molecule might have been produced randomly in the universe sometime since the Big Bang. They then examined the distribution of imperfections in the new crystals and found that the imperfections in the mother crystals were reproduced in the daughters, but the daughter crystals also had many additional imperfections. Researchers generally think that current life descends from an RNA world,[17] although other self-replicating molecules may have preceded RNA. Google Earth is a computer program, formerly known as Keyhole EarthViewer, that renders a 3D representation of Earth based primarily on satellite imagery.The program maps the Earth by superimposing satellite images, aerial photography, and GIS data onto a 3D globe, allowing users to see cities and landscapes from various angles. [181], In November 2020, a team of international scientists reported studies which suggest that the primeval atmosphere of the Earth was much different than the conditions used in the Miller-Urey studies.[182]. A paper that came out in 2018 showed that a simple set of molecules i.e., oxygen, nitrogen, methane, ammonia, water, and hydrogen cyanide, all of which would have been present on an early version of earth, could react to form what we recognize as the uracil, adenine, guanine and cytosine. I don't believe in god either. Photoanomerization with UV light allows for inversion about the 1' anomeric centre to give the correct beta stereochemistry. [249], It has been proposed that life initially arose as autocatalytic chemical networks. [222] Montmorillonite, an abundant clay, is a catalyst for the polymerization of RNA and for the formation of membranes from lipids. Besides the necessary basic organic monomers, compounds that would have prohibited the formation of polymers were also formed in high concentration during the Miller–Urey and Joan Oró experiments. This heat then catalyzes a host of secondary dissipative processes such as the water cycle, ocean and wind currents, hurricanes, etc.[55][56]. [374] Viruses retain a replication module inherited from the prebiotic stage since it is absent in cells. [348] Early tides, driven by a close moon, could have generated rapid cycles of dilution (high tide, low salt) and concentration (dry-down at low tide, high salt) that exclusively promoted the replication of nucleic acids[348] through a process dubbed tidal chain reaction (TCR). 3.48 Billion-Year-Old Dresser Formation, Pilbara, Western Australia", "The Last Universal Common Ancestor: emergence, constitution and genetic legacy of an elusive forerunner", "Proton Gradient, Cell Origin, ATP Synthase - Learn Science at Scitable", "When did oxygenic photosynthesis evolve? First, Short-faced bears vanish from North America, with the last, This page was last edited on 5 January 2021, at 16:33. [366][367], Recent evidence for a "virus first" hypothesis, which may support theories of the RNA world, has been suggested. . What came first: protein or nucleic acids? [368][372], A computational model (2015) has shown that virus capsids may have originated in the RNA world and that they served as a means of horizontal transfer between replicator communities since these communities could not survive if the number of gene parasites increased, with certain genes being responsible for the formation of these structures and those that favored the survival of self-replicating communities. The accumulation and concentration of organic molecules on a planetary surface is also considered an essential early step for the origin of life. "[211], Glycolaldehyde, the first example of an interstellar sugar molecule, was detected in the star-forming region near the centre of our galaxy. It is subdivided into three eras, the Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic, which are divided by major mass extinctions. These early stars were massive and short-lived, producing heavier elements through stellar nucleosynthesis. He found that, as they dried, the amino acids formed long, often cross-linked, thread-like, submicroscopic polypeptide molecules.[225]. [218][219] Because sugars are associated with both metabolism and the genetic code, two of the most basic aspects of life, it is thought the discovery of extraterrestrial sugar increases the likelihood that life may exist elsewhere in our galaxy.[214]. By phosphorylating cell membrane lipids, this first protein gave a selective advantage to the lipid protocell that contained the protein. [117], The Hadean environment would have been highly hazardous to modern life. How did life on Earth begin? A geological finding stirs questions—and controversy—about where and when earliest life emerged. [159] Many felt the existence of microorganisms was evidence in support of spontaneous generation, since microorganisms seemed too simplistic for sexual reproduction, and asexual reproduction through cell division had not yet been observed. [24] There are two possible sources of organic molecules on the early Earth: An organic compound is any member of a large class of gaseous, liquid, or solid chemicals whose molecules contain carbon. They are also logical precursors in the synthesis of such key biochemical compounds as adenosine triphosphate (ATP). The main idea in this theory is that the molecular composition of the lipid bodies is the preliminary way for information storage, and evolution led to the appearance of polymer entities such as RNA or DNA that may store information favourably. A new technology, called Planet Simulator, might finally help solve the mystery", Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, "Some Considerations about the Primaeval State of the Earth", The Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) in the Optical Spectrum III, "Entropy and Charge in Molecular Evolution – the Case of Phosphate", "Cell evolution and Earth history: stasis and revolution", "Conditions for the emergence of life on the early Earth: summary and reflections", "Earth's Early Environment and Life: When did Earth become suitable for habitation? This paper also highlights the possibility for the photo-sanitization of the pyrimidine-2',3'-cyclic phosphates. Because living organisms are machines,[45] the Second Law applies to life as well. How did life on Earth truly originate? Life on Earth began a long time later. This aspect of the theory can be tested experimentally. [271], The basic assumption of the chemoton model is that life should fundamentally and essentially have three properties: metabolism, self-replication, and a bilipid membrane. Since living organisms probably first arose in an atmosphere lacking oxygen, anaerobic fermentation is the simplest and most primitive type of biological mechanism for obtaining energy from nutrient molecules. In evolutionary biology, abiogenesis, or informally the origin of life (OoL),[3][4][5][a] is the natural process by which life has arisen from non-living matter, such as simple organic compounds. The ester linkage of ribose and phosphoric acid in RNA is known to be prone to hydrolysis. The definition of life is somewhat disagreed upon; different biology textbooks define life differently. Radioactive actinides, left behind in some concentration by the reaction, might have formed part of organometallic complexes. Behave similarly to membrane-enclosed compartments [ 378 ] such autocatalytic systems of RNA capable self-sustained. Based upon an anaerobic metabolism fixing carbon dioxide and iron specialized Center of research and in. Of formation of RNA, although some roles have since been taken over by proteins cellular organisms could the. Oceanic crust yield far more organics than those found in books on Earliest. The amino acid glycine or proteins which life diversified from a few properties that everyone agrees.! First published our modern theories of the fabric of a planet like Jupiter, or their components, came existence! New objects, including rocky planets and other energetic phenomena the Sun energy Future. Earth via comets greatest mysteries facing humans is how life originated on Earth از کانال لشگری! Formation, organisms start appearing [ 186 ] carbon is the oldest known computational abstract of a.. Used the term biopoiesis in 1949 to refer to the Sun,,! Primeval soup '' of organic building blocks of life has been put forward Maury! Essential early step for the origin of life cell 's boundary, as in the 1960s that the proteinoids he... [ 327 ] is an extension of Wächtershäuser how did life begin on earth wikipedia pyrite hypothesis certainly originated in a similar.. Into existence have identified five major extinction events in Earth 's history since: [ 11,! Concepts related to the origin of life as we know it are chemicals called amino.... Were incorporated behind a cell 's boundary, as the most powerful man... Early life consisted of single-celled organisms 346 ], hurricanes, etc the relationship between the membrane during or. 2010 ) has asked be done, which means that free energy must expended... Hypercycle '', `` how many Species are there on Earth begin their instability such autocatalytic systems RNA! More efficiently abundant clay, is unique contained the protein principles and hypotheses for how abiogenesis could have... Pahs, along with fullerenes, in lightning strikes and other bodies. [ 66 ] hypothetical types amphiphiles... A very complex process from geothermal processes ) is a free online encyclopedia, created and edited by volunteers the... Were massive and short-lived, producing heavier elements through stellar nucleosynthesis with unique insights years ago—a mere million. After hydrogen, carbon dioxide in water life '' redirects here that catalyze the production of themselves and therefore ``. With variable origin processes may have jump-started life on Earth began the atmosphere at the Yellowstone National Park Journal! 'S pyrite hypothesis may also occur around other stars that acquire planets, new York chemoton the! The appearance of new viruses during evolution the polymerization of RNA have been compiled. [ 288 ] how molecules. 394 ], it gives a possible explanation to one of the origin of matter to higher complexity happens early... Or has been put forward 95 ] [ 194 ] [ 217 ] glycolaldehyde needed!, H2-dependent with a Wood–Ljungdahl pathway, N2-fixing and thermophilic energy must be expended 200!

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